They also paved the way to the British colonization of Australia, which was to become the second largest British settlement colony, and to the discovery of the Terra Australis Incognita.
He held that all races of men, before being fully civilized, had undergone an historical development through three successive levels of barbarism.
Despite the unreliable and often fantastical nature of its accounts it was used as a reference  for the East, Egypt, and the Levant in general, asserting the old belief that Jerusalem was the centre of the world.
The land routes of Central Asia The prelude to the Age of Discovery, however, is to be found neither in the Norse explorations in the Atlantic nor in the Arab activities in the Indian Ocean but, rather, in the land journeys of Italian missionaries and merchants that linked the Mediterranean coasts to the China Sea.
Encounters with peoples of the Pacific Ocean and particularly with the Tahitian natives had an important impact on the European imagination, 17 as did direct contact with Tahitians such as Aoutourou and Omai c.
These were astronomical charts plotting the location of the stars over a distinct period of time. He held that all races of men, before being fully civilized, had undergone an historical development through three successive levels of barbarism.
The Manila Galleon The longest and most ambitious trading route opened up by the Spanish in the 16th century was the passage across the Pacific, between the Philippines and America.
Information about the route is interesting, but the great contribution of Marco Polo to the geographical knowledge of the West lay in his vivid descriptions of the East. After visiting Java they sailed through the Strait of Malacca again proving the error of Ptolemy ; and, landing at Hormuz, they traveled cross-country to Armeniaand so home to Venicewhich they reached in Together these waves of expansion constitute an age of global plunder which primarily benefitted the Western world, but they also prepared the way for an ever more "transcultural" world.
If Christian Europe could only convert the Mongols, this would at one and the same time heavily tip the scales against Muslim and in favour of Christian power and also give political protection to Christian merchants along the silk routes to the legendary sources of wealth in China.
However, this article will deal primarily with the European side of the encounter. Thirdly, there was the Oriental seas and northern Asia. The early and midth century also witnessed the beginning of the colonization of Australia and New Zealand; the French expeditions to TonkinVietnam and Cambodia in the s; British involvement in Afghanistan and British efforts to gain entry into the markets of China; as well as German, Belgian and Italian imperialist activities in western and eastern Africa.
Asia was perceived as a more or less undifferentiated land mass where, for mainly climatic and environmental reasons, political despotism, slavery and heretical and idolatrous religions dominated immutable societies. Secondly, there were the northern seas, stretching eastward from the Baltic to the White Sea and the Siberian coasts and westward to the northern American coasts of CanadaLabradorthe Hudson Bay and the Baffin Island.
They were clearly not fully human beings and had to be subjected to a superior political authority, which would bring them the blessings of European and Christian order. It also led to the introduction of new diseases that decimated the indigenous peoples. As shipping between Seville and the West Indies grew, knowledge of the Caribbean islands, Central America and the northern coast of South America grew.
These had a considerable effect on European culture and, in particular, on European and Western concepts of the Orient.
The South Seas explorations of the late 18th century thus contributed to European philosophical debates as well as preparing the way for trade, missionary activity and colonization in the region. Financial crashes were common; the Spanish crown, the heaviest borrower in Europe, suffered repeated bankruptcies in—77,and The arrival of the Spanish in the "New World" would also transform life in Europe and the Americas on the material, cultural and intellectual levels, drawing both Europe and the Americas into an increasingly transatlantic and transcultural relationship, producing what has been described as the "Columbian exchange".
The voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot had their strongest inspirations in quite other traditions. Trade in Asian goods and fabrics had a profound effect on the economic, political, diplomatic and social spheres in Europe. His portrayal of the population of the region as having well-established political structures contradicted the traditional view of this population as uncivilized.
Columbus's first voyage in spurred maritime exploration and, froma number of explorers headed west.
He reached Peking by way of India and Malaya, then traveled by sea to Canton; he returned to Europe by way of Central Asiavisiting Tibet in —the first European to do so.
The idea of the "noble savage" contributed to the development of primitivistic attitudes which exalted the simple, natural life, unspoiled by civilized society. Two prevalent attitudes towards the Native American quickly emerged. A few travelers followed the Polos.
Exploration of the Atlantic coastlines Beyond the Pillars of Hercules the Strait of Gibraltarthe Carthaginians from the Phoenician city of Carthage in what is now Tunisiaholding both shores of the strait, early ventured out into the Atlantic.
The positive stereotype of the virtuous and natural "other" also implied criticism of European civilization as corrupt and immoral. During the period between the end of the Seven Years War and the outbreak of the French Revolution, Europeans greatly expanded their knowledge of the Pacific Ocean thanks to navigators and scientists such as George Anson —John Byron —Samuel Wallis — and Philip Carteret —Louis-Antoine de Bougainville —Johann Reinhold Forster — and his son Georg — From the 16th century and to a greater degree from the late 18th century onward, an increasing volume of images, narrated accounts, and literature of various kinds disseminated information about, and impressions of, the Far East throughout Europe.
On 21 April a mountain was seen and was named Monte Pascoaland on 22 April Cabral landed on the coast. But his ethnological descriptions also offered a clue to history.
Moreover, some of the newly discovered people, while physically human, had apparently no equivalent forms of economic organization, political authority or religion.
He invested in sponsoring voyages down the coast of Mauritaniagathering a group of merchants, shipowners and stakeholders interested in new sea lanes. In other words, the present state of the American peoples represented the primitive state of mankind. Besides redistributing the world's resources in Europe's favour and increasing Europe's global power, these processes had two interrelated, long-term consequences.
In his book he described how, upon every main high road, at a distance apart of 25 or 30 miles 40 to 50 kmthere were stations, with houses of accommodation for travelers, with good horses kept in constant readiness at each station. The Expansion of Europe. The Expansion of Europe.
From the 15th through 17th centuries, Europe sought to expand its power and riches through a rigorous exploration of the world. European Expansion: This map illustrates the main travels of the Age of Discovery, from The travel routes spanned between Europe and the eastern coast of.
Europe's colonial expansion, European countries began exploring and seeking to dominate the rest of the world during the 15th and 16th centuries, thanks to their ability to control sea routes and to the discovery of the American continent.
Motives for European Expansion 15th and 16th century essaysEuropeans had many reasons to risk their live in a really long voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. Many new technological advancements such as the cannons, new ships, magnetic compass and the astrolabe- helped make the trip something possible.
European expansion in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries were led by the three main motives of God, glory, and gold. Books such as "Travels of John. European expansion in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries were led by the three main motives of God, glory, and gold.
Books such as "Travels of John Mandeville" and "Travels" by Marco Polo inspired explorers in the centuries to come. The 15th century witnessed the rounding of the feared Cape Bojador and Portuguese exploration of the west coast of Africa, while in the last decade of the century the Spanish sent expeditions to the New World, focusing on exploring the Caribbean Sea, and the Portuguese discovered the sea route to India.
In the 16th century, various countries.European expansion 15th and 16th centuries